๐น๐‘œ๐“Š๐“ƒ๐’น Niaiserie allemande

People today are trying, it seems to me, to divert attention from Kantโ€™s real influence on German philosophy, trying especially to evade what he himself considered his great value. Kant was most proud of his table of categories; holding it in his hands he said, “This is the most difficult thing that ever could be undertaken for the benefit of metaphysics.” But let us understand what this “could be” really implies! He was proud of having discovered in man a new faculty, the faculty to make synthetic a priori judgements. Granted that he was deceiving himself about his discovery: nevertheless, the development and rapid flowering of German philosophy stem from this pride and from the rivalry of his disciples to discover if at all possible something worthy of even more prideโ€”and in any event “new faculties”! But letโ€™s think about it, it is high time. “How are synthetic a priori judgements possible?” wondered Kant, and what did he answer? They are facilitated by a faculty: unfortunately, however, he did not say this in four words, but so cumbersomely, so venerably, and with such an expense of German profundity and ornateness that people misheard the comical niaiserie allemande inย such an answer. They were ecstatic about this new faculty, in fact, and the rejoicing reached its height when Kant discovered a moral faculty in man as well. (For at that time Germans were still moral, and not yet “real-political”.) There followed the honeymoon of German philosophy; all the young theologians of the Tรผbingen Stift headed right for the bushesโ€”they were all looking for โ€˜facultiesโ€™.

โ€” from Beyond Good and Evil byย Friedrich Nietzsche, translated by Marion Faber

1886 (1998)

๐น๐‘œ๐“Š๐“ƒ๐’น ุงู„ุญุงูุฉ ุฃุณุฑุงุฑูู‡ุง

ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุญุงูุฉ ุงู„ู‡ุดุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู†ุตู„ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ุง ูˆูƒู†ุง ุทูŠู„ุฉ ุงู„ูˆู‚ุช ู†ุณุนู‰ ุจูƒู„ ู…ุง ููŠู†ุง ู…ู† ุชู‡ูˆุฑ ู„ุจู„ูˆุบู‡ุงุŒ ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ู‚ุดุฑุฉ ุงู„ุฎุฏุงุนุฉ ู…ู† ุฑู‚ูŠู‚ ุงู„ุฌู„ูŠุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ููˆู‡ุฉ ุฃุฎุฏูˆุฏ ู…ุง ุฃุทูˆู„ ู…ุง ุฃุบุฑุงู†ุง ููŠ ุฃุญู„ุงู…ู†ุง ุงู„ุดุจู‚ุฉ ุจุงู†ุชู‡ุงูƒ ุธู„ุงู…ู‡ุŒ ู‡ู†ุงูƒ ุญูŠุซ ุงู„ุญูŠุงุฉ ุชู†ูƒุณุฑ ุจูŠู† ุฑุฌู„ูŠูƒ ูƒุฃุณุง ู…ู† ูƒุฑูŠุณุชุงู„ ุนุฐุฑูŠุชูƒ ุงู„ุชูŠ ู„ู… ูŠุตู†ู‡ุง ุงู„ุฒู…ู†ุŒ ู†ุณูŠุฑ ูˆู†ุชุฑูƒ ุขุซุงุฑู†ุงุŒ ู†ุนุฑู ุฃู†ู†ุง ู†ู…ุชุญู† ุงู„ู…ุตูŠุฑ ุจูƒู„ ูู„ุฐุฉ.
ุงู„ุญุงูุฉ ุชุจู‚ู‰. ู†ุฏูˆุฑ ููŠ ุญู„ู‚ุฉ ุงู„ู„ุญู… ุนู„ู‰ ู†ูุณ ุงู„ู…ุญูˆุฑ ุงู„ุซุงุจุช ู„ู„ูˆู‡ู… ูˆู†ุญุงูˆู„ ุซุงู†ูŠุฉุŒ ูˆู…ู† ุฌุฏูŠุฏุŒ ุฌุงู…ุญูŠู† ุฃูƒุซุฑ ููŠ ูƒู„ ู…ุฑุฉ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุนุจู‚ุช ุฑูŠุญ ุงู„ุทู‚ูˆุณ ููŠ ุงู„ุดุฑุงูŠูŠู†ุŒ ุจุฃู† ู†ุฒูŠุฏ ู‚ูˆุฉ ุงู„ุฏูุน ููŠ ูˆุฌู‡ ุงู„ูˆุนูŠุฏ ุจุงู„ูู†ุงุกุŒ ู…ู†ุฒู„ู‚ ุงู„ุฎูˆู ูˆุงู„ุญู…ู‰ุŒ ุนุงุฑููŠู† ุฃู† ุงู„ู‚ุดุฑุฉ ู‚ุฏ ุชู†ูƒุณุฑ ุฃูˆ ุชุฐูˆุจ ููŠ ุฃูŠุฉ ู„ุญุธุฉ.
ู†ุฌุงุฒู ุจุฃู†ูุงุณ ู…ูƒุชูˆู…ุฉ ุชุฏุงู†ูŠ ุงู„ุงู†ูุฌุงุฑ ู„ู†ุฌุฑุจ ุฃู† ู†ุฑู‰ ุดูŠุฆุงู‹ ู„ู… ูŠุฑู‡ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุฃุญุฏ ุณูˆุงู†ุง.
โ€” ู…ู† ู…ุฌู…ูˆุนุฉ “ุญุงู…ู„ ุงู„ูุงู†ูˆุณ ููŠ ู„ูŠู„ ุงู„ุฐุฆุงุจ” ู„ุณุฑูƒูˆู† ุจูˆู„ุต

1996

๐น๐‘œ๐“Š๐“ƒ๐’น ู…ุฐุงู‚ ุงู„ู†ุฏู…

ุฃู…ุง ุงู„ูŠูˆุณู ุฃูู†ุฏูŠุŒ ุฐูˆ ุงู„ุฑุงุฆุญุฉ ุงู„ุฃุฎุงุฐุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุชุนูŠุฏ ุงู„ุดูŠุฎ ุฅู„ู‰ ุตุจุงู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู‚ุดุฑุฉ ุงู„ู…ุชุฌุฑุฏุฉ ุจู…ุฌุฑุฏ ุงู„ุฅุดุงุฑุฉุŒ ูˆุงู„ุทุนู… ุงู„ู…ู…ุชู†ุนุŒ ูู‚ุฏ ุจู‚ูŠู†ุงุŒ ุญุชู‰ ุงู„ุนุงู… ูกูฉูจูขุŒ ู†ุฎููŠ ุณุฑ ุจูŠุงุฑุชู‡ ุงู„ุจุงู‚ูŠุฉุŒ ููŠ ุฃุฑุงุถูŠ ู‚ุฑูŠุฉ ุงู„ุจุตุฉุŒ ูˆู†ุดุชุฑูŠู‡ ู…ู† ุตุงุญุจู‡ ุงู„ุนุฑุจูŠ ุงู„ุจุตุงูˆูŠ ุงู„ูˆุญูŠุฏ ุงู„ุจุงู‚ูŠุŒ ู†ุญู† ูˆุฃู‡ุงู„ูŠ ูƒูุฑ ูŠุงุณูŠูุŒ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ูˆุงุณู…. ุญุชู‰ ุฌุฆู†ุงู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุนุงู… ุงู„ุชุงู„ูŠ ููˆุฌุฏู†ุง ุงู„ุจูŠุงุฑุฉ ู‚ุงุนุงู‹ ุตูุตูุงู‹ ูˆุฃุฑุถุงู‹ ู…ุญุฑูˆุซุฉ. ูุณุฃู„ู†ุงู‡ ุนู† ุงู„ุณุจุจ. ู‚ุงู„: ุฃูˆู„ุงุฏูŠ ู‚ุฑุฑูˆุง ุงู‚ุชู„ุงุนู‡ุง ู„ุฃู†ู‡ุง ู„ุง ุชุตู†ุน ู…ุงู„ุงู‹. ูุชุนุฒูŠู†ุง ุจุงู„ู…ู†ุฏู„ูŠู†ุง ูˆุจุงู„ูƒู„ู…ู†ุชูŠู†ุง. ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ู…ุง ู„ูŠุณุง ุงู„ูŠูˆุณู ุฃูู†ุฏูŠุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุฃู† ุงู„ุฎุถุงุจ ู„ุง ูŠุนูŠุฏ ุงู„ุดุจุงุจุŒ ูˆุงู„ุตุจูŠุฉ ุงู„ุณูุงุฑุฏูŠุฉ ุงู„ุณู…ุฑุงุกุŒ ุนู„ู‰ ุบู†ุฌู‡ุงุŒ ู„ูŠุณุช ุงู„ุนุฑุจูŠุฉ. ูˆู„ูˆ ู†ุจุช ุงู„ุญู†ูŠู† ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุดุฌุฑ ูุงูƒู‡ุฉ ู„ูƒุงู† ุงู„ูŠูˆุณู ุฃูู†ุฏูŠ. ูˆู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ู„ู„ู†ุฏู… ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุง ุณู„ู ู…ู† ุทูŠุด ู…ุฐุงู‚ูŒ ู„ูƒุงู† ู…ุฐุงู‚ ุงู„ูŠูˆุณู ุฃูู†ุฏูŠ ุงู„ุฃู‚ุฑุจ ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ุฐุงู‚ู‡. ูˆู„ูƒู† ุงู„ู†ุฏู…ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุงู„ุณูŠู ุงู„ู…ุณู„ูˆู„ุŒ ูŠู„ู…ุน ูˆูŠุฌุฑุญ ูˆูŠุจู‚ู‰ ููŠ ุงู„ุตุฏุฑ ู„ุง ูŠุจุฑุญ.
โ€”ย ู…ู† ุฑูˆุงูŠุฉ โ€œุฅุฎุทูŠุฉโ€ ู„ุฅู…ูŠู„ ุญุจูŠุจูŠ

1985

๐น๐‘œ๐“Š๐“ƒ๐’น The Hieroglyphs of Suffering

I do not often weep: for not only do my thoughts on subjects connected with the chief interests of man daily, nay hourly, descend a thousand fathoms โ€œtoo deep for tears;โ€ not only does the sternness of my habits of thought present an antagonism to the feelings which prompt tearsโ€”wanting of necessity to those who, being protected usually by their levity from any tendency to meditative sorrow, would by that same levity be made incapable of resisting it on any casual access of such feelings; but also, I believe that all minds which have contemplated such objects as deeply as I have done, must, for their own protection from utter despondency, have early encouraged and cherished some tranquillising belief as to the future balances and the hieroglyphic meanings of human sufferings.ย  On these accounts I am cheerful to this hour, and, as I have said, I do not often weep.ย  Yet some feelings, though not deeper or more passionate, are more tender than others; and often, when I walk at this time in Oxford Street by dreamy lamplight, and hear those airs played on a barrel-organ which years ago solaced me and my dear companion (as I must always call her), I shed tears, and muse with myself at the mysterious dispensation which so suddenly and so critically separated us for ever.ย  How it happened the reader will understand from what remains of this introductory narration.

โ€” from Confessions of an English Opium-Eater by Thomas de Quincey

1886

๐น๐‘œ๐“Š๐“ƒ๐’น God’s Spies

No, no, no, no! Come, let’s away to prison:
We two alone will sing like birds i’ the cage:
When thou dost ask me blessing, I’ll kneel down,
And ask of thee forgiveness: so we’ll live,
And pray, and sing, and tell old tales, and laugh
At gilded butterflies, and hear poor rogues
Talk of court news; and we’ll talk with them too,
Who loses and who wins; who’s in, who’s out;
And take upon’s the mystery of things,
As if we were God’s spies: and we’ll wear out,
In a wall’d prison, packs and sects of great ones,
That ebb and flow by the moon.

โ€” from King Lear (Act V, Scene III)

1605-6

๐น๐‘œ๐“Š๐“ƒ๐’น ุตูˆุชู‡ ูŠู‚ุชู„ ุงู„ุชู…ุงุณูŠุญ

ุงู„ุฃุณุฏ. ู…ู† ุงู„ุณุจุงุน ูˆุงู„ุฃู†ุซู‰ ุฃุณุฏุฉ ูˆู„ู‡ ุฃุณู…ุงุก ูƒุซูŠุฑุฉ ูู…ู† ุฃุดู‡ุฑู‡ุง ุฃุณุงู…ุฉ ูˆุงู„ุญุฑุซ ูˆู‚ุณูˆุฑุฉ ูˆุงู„ุบุถู†ูุฑ ูˆุญูŠุฏุฑุฉ ูˆุงู„ู„ูŠุซ ูˆุงู„ุถุฑุบุงู… ูˆู…ู† ูƒู†ุงู‡ ุฃุจูˆ ุงู„ุฃุจุทุงู„ ูˆุฃุจูˆ ุดุจู„ ูˆุฃุจูˆ ุงู„ุนุจุงุณ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุฃู†ูˆุงุน ู…ู†ู‡ุง ู…ุง ูˆุฌู‡ู‡ ูˆุฌู‡ ุฅู†ุณุงู† ูˆุดูƒู„ ุฌุณุฏู‡ ูƒุงู„ุจู‚ุฑ ูˆู„ู‡ ู‚ุฑูˆู† ุณูˆุฏ ู†ุญูˆ ุดุจุฑ ูˆู…ู†ู‡ ู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ุฃุญู…ุฑ ูƒุงู„ุนู†ุงุจ ูˆุบูŠุฑ ุฐู„ูƒ ูˆุชู„ุฏู‡ ุฃู…ู‡ ู‚ุทุนุฉ ู„ุญู… ูˆุชุณุชู…ุฑ ุชุญุฑุณู‡ ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ุฃูŠุงู… ุซู… ูŠุฃุชูŠ ุฃุจูˆู‡ ููŠู†ูุฎ ููŠู‡ ูุชู†ูุฑุฌ ุฃุนุถุงุคู‡ ูˆุชุชุดูƒู„ ุตูˆุฑุชู‡ ุซู… ุชุฑุถุนู‡ ูˆุชุณุชู…ุฑ ุนูŠู†ุงู‡ ู…ุบู„ูˆู‚ุฉ ุณุจุนุฉ ุฃูŠุงู… ุซู… ุชูุชุชุญ ูˆูŠู‚ูŠู… ุนู„ู‰ ุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุญุงู„ุฉ ุจูŠู† ุฃุจูŠู‡ ูˆุฃู…ู‡ ุฅู„ู‰ ุณุชุฉ ุฃุดู‡ุฑ ุซู… ูŠุชูƒู„ู ุงู„ูƒุณุจ ุจุนุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ูˆู„ู‡ ุตุจุฑ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฌูˆุน ูˆุงู„ุนุทุด ูˆุนู†ุฏู‡ ุดุฑู ู†ูุณ ูŠู‚ุงู„ ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุนุงูˆุฏ ูุฑูŠุณุชู‡ ูˆู„ุง ูŠุฃูƒู„ ู…ู† ูุฑูŠุณุฉ ุบูŠุฑู‡ ูˆู„ุง ูŠุดุฑุจ ู…ู† ู…ุงุก ูˆู„ุบ ููŠู‡ ูƒู„ุจูˆูŠุชุญูŠุฑ ุนู†ุฏ ุฑุคูŠุฉ ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ ูˆู…ู† ูƒุฑู…ู‡ ุงู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠู‚ุฑุจ ุงู„ู…ุฑุฃุฉ ุฎุตูˆุตุง ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู†ุช ุญุงุฆุถุง ูˆู‚ูŠู„ ุฃุฑุจุน ุนูŠูˆู† ุชุถุฆ ุจุงู„ู„ูŠู„ ุนูŠู† ุงู„ุฃุณุฏ ูˆุนูŠู† ุงู„ู†ู…ุฑ ูˆุนูŠู† ุงู„ุณู†ูˆุฑ ูˆุนูŠู† ุงู„ุฃูุนู‰ … ุฅุฐุง ุฃู‚ุจู„ุช ุนู„ู‰ ูˆุงุฏ ู…ุณุจุน ูู‚ู„ ุฃุนูˆุฐ ุจุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ูˆุงู„ุฌุจ ู…ู† ุดุฑ ุงู„ุฃุณุฏ ูˆุณุจุจ ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุง ู‚ูŠู„ ุฅู† ุจุฎุชู†ุตุฑ ุฑุฃู‰ ููŠ ู†ูˆู…ู‡ ุฃู† ู‡ู„ุงูƒู‡ ูŠูƒูˆู† ุนู„ู‰ ูŠุฏ ู…ูˆู„ูˆุฏ ูุฌุนู„ ูŠุฃู…ุฑ ุจู‚ุชู„ ุงู„ุฃุทูุงู„ ูุฎุงูุช ุฃู… ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูุฌุงุกุช ุฅู„ู‰ ุจุฆุฑ ูุฃู„ู‚ุชู‡ ููŠู‡ ูุฃุฑุณู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ู‡ ุฃุณุฏุง ูŠุญุฑุณู‡ ูˆู‚ูŠู„ ุฅู† ุจุฎุชู†ุตุฑ ุชูˆู‡ู… ุฐู„ูƒ ููŠ ุฏุงู†ูŠุงู„ ูุถุฑู‰ ู„ู‡ ุฃุณุฏูŠู† ูˆุฌุนู„ู‡ู…ุง ููŠ ุงู„ุฌุจ ูˆุฃู„ู‚ุงู‡ ูู„ู… ูŠุคุฐูŠุงู‡ ูˆุตุงุฑุง ูŠุจุตุจุตุงู† ุญูˆู„ู‡ ูˆูŠู„ุญุณุงู†ู‡ … ูู…ู† ุฎูˆุงุตู‡ ุฃู† ุตูˆุชู‡ ูŠู‚ุชู„ ุงู„ุชู…ุงุณูŠุญ ูˆุดุญู…ู‡ ู…ู† ุทู„ู‰ ุจู‡ ูŠุฏู‡ ู„ู… ูŠู‚ุฑุจู‡ ุณุจุน ูˆู…ุฑุงุฑุฉ ุงู„ุฐูƒุฑ ู…ู†ู‡ ุชุญู„ ุงู„ู…ุนู‚ูˆุฏ ูˆู„ุญู…ู‡ ูŠู†ูุน ู…ู† ุงู„ูุงู„ุฌ ูˆุฅุฐุง ูˆุถุนุช ู‚ุทุนุฉ ู…ู† ุฌู„ุฏู‡ ููŠ ุตู†ุฏูˆู‚ ู„ู… ูŠู‚ุฑุจู‡ ุณูˆุณ ูˆู„ุง ุฃุฑุถุฉ ูˆุงุฐุง ูˆุถุน ุนู„ู‰ ุฌู„ุฏ ุบูŠุฑู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุณุจุงุน ุชุณุงู‚ุท ุดุนุฑู‡ ูˆู‡ูˆ ู…ู† ุงู„ุญูŠูˆุงู† ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุนูŠุด ุฃู„ู ุณู†ุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุง ุฐูƒุฑ ูˆุนู„ุงู…ุฉ ุฐู„ูƒ ูƒุซุฑุฉ ุณู‚ูˆุท ุฃุณู†ุงู†ู‡.
โ€” ู…ู† ูƒุชุงุจ “ุงู„ู…ุณุชุทุฑู ููŠ ูƒู„ ูู† ู…ุณุชุธุฑู” ู„ุดู‡ุงุจ ุงู„ุฏูŠู† ุงู„ุฃุจุดูŠู‡ูŠ

1388-1428

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